Nihil novi hodie: veteribus studeamus
Nothing new today, let’s study old (things).

Summary: After the expulsion of Tarquin, there was war with the Etruscans. The Romans attempt to burn the bridge leading to the city. The Etruscans try to cross. Horatius holds them off. Horatius makes a grand slam.

Videamus Formas Veteres:

Let us see the old patterns:

Verbs: Let us review all the verb forms we have learned: we have seen only two forms. Verbs that end in -it and -erunt. They are third person singular and third person plural. They belong to the tense (time) that we call perfect. The perfect tense refers to something that is past.

Nouns: On nouns we have used three cases: nominative, objective, and ablative.

The nominative is the case for the subject.

The objective is the case for the direct object of a verb. It is also used for the object of some prepositions: ad, ante, and in (when in means into: motion). The ablative case so far has been used only after some prepositions: cum and in (when in means in or on —no motion).

We have not yet bothered to learn the nominative patterns. But we do know the objective patterns in three declensions:

1. -am -as 2. -um -os 3. -em -es

We know the ablative singular endings for these three declensions: 1. -a 2. -o 3. -e.

Constructions: We have learned some kinds of dependent clauses:

We have seen quod for indirect statements after verbs of saying.

We have seen quando in the sense of when.

We have seen postquam in the sense of after (It never means afterwards. )

Enim: Notice the odd word enim. It means for. But it can never be the first word in its own clause. If I want to say: For the Romans were great—I may say:

Románi enim fuérunt magni. But not: Enim Románi fuérunt magni.

Nunc Exerceamus Nos

(Now let us exercise ourselves)

Look for object patterns.

Tarquínius fuit rex malus. Ergo Romani expulérunt regem malum. Sed Tarquínius venit cum Etruscis contra (against ) Romam. Etrusci paraverunt exercitum magnum. Romani etiam paraverunt exercitum magnum. Columbus non venit cum Etruscis. Et agnus albus non venit cum Etruscis. Agnus enim Tarquinium non amavit. Agnus enim dixit baa Tarquinio {to Tarquinius) . Sed Tarquinius non iecit agnum in aquam. Agnus enim in ponte non fuit. Fuitne {Note: The little ending -ne is often attached to the first word of a question unless that word is already a question word.) Tarquínius in ponte? Non. Tarquínius in ponte non fuit. Horatius in ponte fuit. Sed Horatius non remansit in ponte. Ignis enim in pontem venit. Romani ignem iecerunt in pontem. Etrusci enim in ponte fuerunt. Pons non amavit ignem. Pons ergo cecidit in aquam. Horatius etiam in aquam cecidit. Horatius enim non habuit navem. Horatius non stetit in ponte cum igne. Pons etiam non stetit. Columbus non vidit ignem in ponte. Columbus enim non fuit in ponte quando ignis venit. Fuitne Columbus in urbe Romana quando ignis venit? Non. Columbus etiam non fuit in America quando ignis venit. Columbus non dixit quod fuit in America quando ignis venit in pontem Románum. Colúmbus dixit veritátem. Columbus enim non fuit in mundo in illo (that) anno.