De tertia persona in numero singulari in tempore perfecto
De casu nominativo et de casu obiectivo in numero singulari

The second part of the reading was about Christopher Columbus discovering America.

Vocabulary

Now Let’s Think

Here is an English sentence: Marcus saw the lamb (Marcus vidit agnum). There are three important words in it: Marcus is the subject; it is in the nominative case. The verb is saw. The object is lamb, therefore, it is in the objective case. Notice that the Latin verbs above all end in -it. Notice that the word lamb in English, comes after the verb. Lamb is the object. In Latin we do not depend on the order of words to show the object—we depend on the ending. Notice that many words above end in -m. That is the ending for the object. Some have -am : some have -um : some have -em. Notice the various endings for the nominative case. We need not be concerned about them today. After words like ad, cum, and in, we have still other endings. Do not bother about them today. We can understand the story without knowing about them.

Notice also that Marcus is just one person. So we say the subject is nominative singular. There is also only one lamb in school. That is singular too. More than one would be plural. More than one lamb would not only be plural. It would be too much. So we could say that the object in our sentence, agnum, is objective singular. And we could say that the subject in our sentence, Marcus, is nominative singular. There is no Latin word for the, no word for a or an. Just supply these in English when you need them.

Columbus and Lamb Stew

Colúmbus non fuit puélla. María fuit puélla. Colúmbus non fuit planus. Fuit Colúmbus rotúndus? Colúmbus non hábuit pecúniam. Isabélla hábuit pecúniam. Isabélla non hábuit parvum agnum. Isabélla hábuit pecúniam. Colúmbus non hábuit parvum agnum. María hábuit parvum agnum. María non dedit pecúniam. Isabélla dedit pecúniam. Sed María non dedit parvum agnum. Isabélla non venit in scholam. Colúmbus non venit in scholam. Colúmbus venit in Américam. Colúmbus non venit in Américam cum agno. Colúmbus non venit in Américam cum Isabélla. Isabélla non venit in Américam cum Colúmbo. Isabélla non venit in navem. Agnus albus non venit in navem. María non venit in navem. Agnus albus non fuit in India. Colúmbus non fuit in India. India non est agnus. India non est navis. Colúmbus fuit albus. Sed India non fuit alba. Mundus fuit rotúndus. Sed India non fuit alba. Mundus fuit rotúndus. Sed India non fuit rotúnda.


As well as the textbook, there are Tape Scripts for each lesson. These are meant to be listened to individually. Each sentence asks the student for a response. In this lesson, each sentence asks first for the Subject then the Object of each sentence. These could be done with videos, or fill in the blanks style questions.

Onwards to Lectio Secunda